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The elm-bark canoe was not equal to the birch-bark for speed, portaging or durability. It was heavy, difficult to put together, almost impossible to render water-tight, and split easily on contact with rocks.
Building a birch bark canoe. Felling trees by burning and chopping with a stone axe. Stripping birch bark. A dug out canoe was made by shaping a log, charring the inside, and then scraping it with sharp stones.