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The beaming tool was so named because the skin to be dressed was laid over a smooth log or beam from which the bark had been stripped.

Engravings in Champlain's "Voyages" Paris 1619
Girl in Dancing Costume
Mother carrying child
Woman pounding corn
Warrior with shield and body armor of sticks woven together

There were two types: Angular and domed. The framework of the former was made by settings poles in the ground at an angle to form a cone. The other was made by tying branches together to form a dome. They were called wigwams.

Cartier thus describes Hochelaga:

"The village is circular and is completely enclosed by a wooden palisade in three tiers like a pyramid. The top one is built crosswise, the middle one perpendicular...

Boiling in buffalo paunch, boiling in birch bark vessel, boiling in earthen vessel.

Wild rice was an important cereal food among the Indians of the Great Lakes region.

Camass flowers, collecting maple sap, Saskatoon berries, digging camass roots

Using fish as fertilizer, breaking ground and sowing corn, women gathering corn

Quarrying flint and chipping flints

Fish Trap on a British Columbia River.

Bone Fish Spears.

Copper and Bone Fish Hooks.

Fish Trap Made of Willow Branches.

Early picture of Beaver: 1703 (From Lahontan's Voyages)

A Deadfall for trapping foxes, wolves, etc.

Montagnais hunting Moose in Winter

Shooting the Wild Turkey

"As soon as I saw Monsieur de la Monnerie. I saluted him and said, 'Sir, I surrender my arms to you.' He answered gallantly, 'Mademoiselle, they are in good hands.'

As she neared the gate, an Indian, who had outstripped his companions, caught the kerchief that covered her shoulders, but she loosed herself, and rushing in, with the aid of the manservant, she slammed and bolted the gate fast.

Life in the early days was not all toil or warfare. There was much rude comfort, hospitality and good living, and the pioneers had their times of gaiety and diversion.

The conversion of the Indians to Christianity was one of the earliest and most important objects of the French in Canada. Champlain, who was sincerely pious, declared that the salvation of one soul was of more value than the conquest of an empire.

Woman pounding corn in a hollowed log.
Corn on cob drying under bark shelter.
Arrow maker.
Making a maple sap trough from a basswood log by first burning it out and then finishing it with a stone adze.
Woman weaving a basket.
Hunter making.

Based on sketches made of Gleichen, Alberta, in July 1924. Called A Prairie Town (Five Grain Elevators) in Jefferys record of works on hand.

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