Sources of Information
I have included only those sources which I have found most useful for the pictorial reconstruction of Canadian history. The accompanying list covers but a small portion of the material available.
Valuable details often are mentioned incidentally, and can be found only by reading through many pages of matter irrelevant to our purpose in the hope of coming across the specific piece of information required. There is no short-cut: no quick and easy method of acquiring the knowledge of those minor facts which give life and authenticity to a historical reconstruction. This collection is intended to provide an outline of the territory to be explored and a guide to the searcher in making his own discoveries.
In addition to the library and museum material, one must know the geography and climate of the various parts of the country. The best way to learn this is by visiting and observing the actual localities in which historical events occurred. Parkman realized this to the full: from the beginning he studied the history of North America as much in the open air as in the archives. It is this personal acquaintance with the natural world wherein his personages lived that makes his story so intensely real, alive and picturesque. Though the appearance of the country has changed greatly during the centuries since its settlement, certain features are permanent. East is still east, mountain, plain and sea-coast show but little alteration, the round of the seasons is perennial. The weather, the time of day, the topography are essential elements of the pictorial story, they set its background, and determine its atmosphere and colour.
I. GENERAL WORKS DEALING WITH THE PERIOD
France and England in North America: Francis Parkman.
Histoire du Canada (5th Edition): F. X. Garneau.
Canadian History, a Syllabus and Guide to Reading: R. G. Trotter. Valuable outline of topics, and lists of books.
Alphabet of First Things in Canada: G. Johnson.
Canadian Historical Dates and Events: F. J. Audet.
Catalogue of Pictures in the Public Archives of Canada: J. F. Kenney. Contains excellent prefatory essay on pictorial historical material, with clear and comprehensive description of methods employed in making engravings and other forms of pictorial reproduction. Notes on the individual pictures give complete details as to authorship, size, dates and technical information. Catalogue covers period until 1700, only a fraction of the large amount of pictorial material available in the Archives.
Narrative and Critical History of America: Justin Winsor.
Cartier to Frontenac: Justin Winsor. Both these works contain many early maps and illustrations.
Histoire des Canadiens-Francais: B. Suite.
Histoire de la Seigneurie de Lauzon: J. Edmond Roy.
Histoire de la Notariat au Canada: J. Edmond Roy.
Makers of Canada Series.
Chronicles of Canada Series.
Pageant of America Series.
Canada and its Provinces.
The Rise and Fall of New France: G. M. Wrong.
II. REPRINTS OF EARLY NARRATIVES AND CONTEMPORARY DOCUMENTS
The Voyages of Jacques Cartier: Translated and edited by H.P.Biggar. (Public Archives of Canada)
Champlain's Works - Champlain Society Edition.
Lescarbots' History of New France: Translated and edited by W. L. Grant and H. P. Biggar. (Champlain Society)
Sagard's Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons: Edited by G. M. Wrong. Translated by H. H. Langton. (Champlain Society)
Description and Natural History of North America: Nicolas Denys.Translated and edited by W. F. Ganong. (Champlain Society)
New Relation of Gaspesia: Translated and edited by W. F. Ganong. (Champlain Society)
Documents Relating to the Early History of Hudson Bay: Edited by J. B. Tyrrell. (Champlain Society). All the publications of the Champlain Society give both the original French text and a good translation, together with introductions and complete notes.
Histoire veritable et naturelle des moeurs et productions du pays de la Nouvelle France: Pierre Boucher.
A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America: Father Louis Hennepin. Translated with introduction and notes, by R. G. Thwaites.
New Voyages to North America: Baron Louis A. de Lahontan. Translated with introduction and notes by R. G. Thwaites.
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Edited by R. G. Thwaites. A complete index makes reference easy to the 72 volumes of original texts and translations.
Exploration of the Great Lakes: Narrative by Galinee, translated and edited by J. H. Coyne. (Ontario Historical Society)
History of Montreal: Dallier de Casson. Translated by R. Flenley.
Relations et Memoires: Edited by P. Margry.
Decouvertes et etablissements: Edited by P. Margry.
Journals and Letters of La Verendre: Translated and edited by L. J. Burpee. (Champlain Society)
Journal of a Voyage to North America: Pere F. X. de Charlevoix. Translated and edited by Louise Phelps Kellogg.
Historical Journal of the Campaigns in North America-Knox: Translated and edited by A. G. Doughty. (Champlain Society)
The Journal of Jeffery Amherst: Edited by J. C. Webster. (The Canadian Historical Studies, The Ryerson Press)
The Kelsey Papers: Edited by A. G. Doughty and Chester Martin.(Public Archives of Canada)
Kalm's Travels into North America.
Montcalm and Levis Papers.
III. BOOKS RELATING TO SPECIAL TOPICS AND PERIODS
The Indians of Canada: Diamond Jenness. (National Museum of Canada, Ottawa). The best general survey of the subject; profusely illustrated.
Huronia: Rev. A. E. Jones, S.J. (5th Report of the Ontario Bureau of Archives)
Album of Prehistoric Canadian Art: Harlan I. Smith. (National Museum of Canada, Ottawa)
Precursors of Jacques Cartier: H. P. Biggar.
The St. Lawrence, Its Basin and Its Borderlands: S. E. Dawson.
The Search for the Western Sea: L. J. Burpee.
Toronto During the French Regime: P. J. Robinson. (The Canadian Historical Studies, The Ryerson Press)
Quebec: P. G. Roy.
Old Houses, Old Manors of the Province of Quebec: P. G. Roy.
Old Churches of the Province of Quebec: P. G. Roy.
The Island of Orleans: P. G. Roy. These volumes are sumptuously illustrated with many reproductions of photographs, paintings, drawings and old prints.
Sir William Phipps devant Quebec: Ernest Myrand.
Glimpses of the Monastery: Scenes from the History of the Ursulines of Quebec. By a member of the community.
Les Ramezay et leur Chateau: Victor Morin.
Le Fort et le Chateau de St. Louis: E. Gagnon.
Le Fort de Chambly: B. Suite.
Le Drame Acadien: A. Bernard.
The Forts of Chignecto: J. C. Webster.
Louisbourg, from Its Foundation to Its Fall: J. S. McLennan.
The Conquest of New France: G. M. Wrong. (The Chronicles of America). An excellent one volume history of the french and English conflict for the continent.
The Siege of Quebec: A. G. Doughty and G. W. Parmelee. The six volumes of this work give the fullest details on the subject, and are profusely illustrated.
Le Marquis de Montcalm: T. C. Chapais.
Les Lettres, les Sciences et les Arts au Canada sous le Regime Francais: Antoine Roy.
Moeurs, Contumes et Industries Canadiennes-Francaises: E. Z. Massicotte.
Seigneurial Questions: Lower Canada Reports, Opinions of Sir Louis H. Lafontaine, Bart., C.J., 1856. This report contains much information on the laws and customs of the feudal system of French Canada, such as mining, fishing and timber regulations, dues and rents, mills, etc.
Les Petites Choses de Notre Histoire: P. G. Roy. A series of small books which contain many useful details about life in early French Canada.
Essai sur l'Industrie au Canada sous le Regime Francais: J. N. Fauteux.
The Romance of Medicine in Canada: J. J. Heagerty.
Documents Relating to the Seigniorial Tenure in Canada: Edited by W. B. Munro. (Champlain Society)
An Economic History of Canada: Mary Quayle Innis.
The Seven Years' War: Sigmund Samuel. Contains reproductions of many important prints illustrating the later years of the French regime.
Aboriginal Skin Dressing: Otis T. Mason. (United States National Museum, Washington.)
Handbook of Indians of Canada: Supplement to Annual Report of Department of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa.
Distinguishing Characteristics of Algonkian and Iroquoian Cultures: W. J. Wintemberg. (National Museum of. Canada, Ottawa.)
Wild Rice: Faith Fyles. (Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa.)
The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonkian Art: Frank G. Speck. (Department of Mines, Geological Survey, Ottawa.)
IV. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS
Much information is to be found in articles contributed to historical periodicals and in papers and records published by learned societies. The index of most of these will guide the reader in search of specific information, but often the detail required is too minute or incidental to be listed. For the period covered by this book the following list will be useful:
Canadian Historical Association - Reports.
The Royal Society of Canada, Literary and Historical sections - Proceedings and Transactions.
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec - Transactions.
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal - Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal.
Societe Historique de Montreal - Memoires.
Nova Scotia Historical Society - Collections.
Bulletin des recherches historiques: The forty-six volumes of this monthly publication contain invaluable material on the social life of New France, in particular inventories giving information regarding furnishings, clothing, etc.
Canadian Historical Review, and its predecessor, Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada.
Le Canada Francais.
La Revue Canadienne.
Some of these have published catalogues of their collections, others from time to time issue monographs or hand-books on special subjects: but personal examination and study of the objects themselves is indispensable, and photographs or, better still, drawings of them should be procured. The museums listed contain material relating to the French regime and to the Indians of Canada.
ARCHIVES OF CANADA, OTTAWA.
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM, TORONTO.
Extensive collections of Indian and Eskimo material, excellently displayed, and scientifically grouped. Drawings and paintings of Indian life by Catlin, Kane, Morris and Heming. Sigmund Samuel Collection of early Canadian prints and drawings. The Museum contains many specimens of weapons, furniture, etc., of the 17th and 18th centuries, indispensable to students of Canadian history. These have been gathered under the direction of Dr. C. T. Currelly, and correctly titled, dated and described by him to illustrate their development.
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF CANADA, OTTAWA.
Valuable Indian material. Useful monographs and hand-books.
McCORD MUSEUM, MONTREAL. (Closed temporari1y.)
Prints and drawings of early Montreal.
CHATEAU DE RAMEZAY, MONTREAL.
Valuable collection, including Indian canoes, snow shoes, and cradle boards, numerous portraits, views of early Montreal, furniture, tools, vehicles, etc. Catalogue published.
JOHN ROSS ROBERTSON COLLECTION, PUBLIC LIBRARY, TORONTO.
Though mainly consisting of items relating to early Toronto, includes also many prints, drawings and paintings of persons and places connected with the history of Canada from coast to coast.
NEW BRUNSWICK MUSEUM, SAINT JOHN.
Local Indian material. Also valuable for the ]. Clarence Webster collection of paintings, drawings and prints illustrating Canadian history; especially rich in items in relation to the Maritime Provinces and to General Wolfe. Copiously annotated catalogue published.
QUEBEC PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, QUEBEC.
Many pictures illustrating French Canadian life and the history of New France. Also articles of handicraft.
NOTRE DAME MUSEUM, MONTREAL.
Ecclesiastical vestments, Church furniture, decorations and vessels.
THE MANOIR RICHELIEU, MURRAY BAY, QUEBEC.
This hotel contains the remarkable W. H. Coverdale Collection of Canadiana, consisting of paintings, drawings and prints. Particularly rich in early views of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, Niagara and the Great Lakes, but also including a wide range of Canadian pictorial material of historic interest.
THE WALTER H. MILLEN COLLECTION, ROCKCLIFFE PARK, OTTAWA.
Contains many rare Canadian prints. Carefully annotated catalogues of these two private collections have been prepared by Captain Percy F. Godenrath.
Museums have been established at The Canadian National Parks at Fort Chambly, Quebec, Fort Beausejour, N.B., Annapolis Royal and Louisbourg, N.S., which contain many useful and interesting local relics. The Parks Bureau has published a series of small handbooks, containing short accounts of the history of these and other places under its administration.
UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO, LONDON.
Aboriginal Indian material. Small scale models of pioneer log house, barn, implements, etc.