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The elm-bark canoe was not equal to the birch-bark for speed, portaging or durability. It was heavy, difficult to put together, almost impossible to render water-tight, and split easily on contact with rocks.

Building a birch bark canoe. Felling trees by burning and chopping with a stone axe. Stripping birch bark. A dug out canoe was made by shaping a log, charring the inside, and then scraping it with sharp stones.

The clothing of the Indians varied according to the nature of the country which they inhabited. In addition to the skins of fur-bearing animals, which they used as robes, they also fashioned garments fitted to the body.

The beaming tool was so named because the skin to be dressed was laid over a smooth log or beam from which the bark had been stripped.

Cartier thus describes Hochelaga:

"The village is circular and is completely enclosed by a wooden palisade in three tiers like a pyramid. The top one is built crosswise, the middle one perpendicular...

Wild rice was an important cereal food among the Indians of the Great Lakes region.

Camass flowers, collecting maple sap, Saskatoon berries, digging camass roots

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