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The beaming tool was so named because the skin to be dressed was laid over a smooth log or beam from which the bark had been stripped.

Cartier thus describes Hochelaga:

"The village is circular and is completely enclosed by a wooden palisade in three tiers like a pyramid. The top one is built crosswise, the middle one perpendicular...

Wild rice was an important cereal food among the Indians of the Great Lakes region.

Camass flowers, collecting maple sap, Saskatoon berries, digging camass roots

Using fish as fertilizer, breaking ground and sowing corn, women gathering corn

A deadfall for trapping foxes, wolves, etc.,. Montagnais hunting moose in Winter, Shooting the wild turkey

"As soon as I saw Monsieur de la Monnerie. I saluted him and said, 'Sir, I surrender my arms to you.' He answered gallantly, 'Mademoiselle, they are in good hands.'

As she neared the gate, an Indian, who had outstripped his companions, caught the kerchief that covered her shoulders, but she loosed herself, and rushing in, with the aid of the manservant, she slammed and bolted the gate fast.

Life in the early days was not all toil or warfare. There was much rude comfort, hospitality and good living, and the pioneers had their times of gaiety and diversion.

The conversion of the Indians to Christianity was one of the earliest and most important objects of the French in Canada. Champlain, who was sincerely pious, declared that the salvation of one soul was of more value than the conquest of an empire.

The picture is drawn from a model in the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, illustrating the occupations of a Mohawk family before the coming of the white man.

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